Home > Principles of Animation
Article Index
12 Principles of Animation
1 - Squash and Stretch
2 - Anticipation
3 - Staging
4 - Straight Ahead & Pose to Pose
5 - Follow Through & Overlapping Action
6 - Slow-In & Slow-Out
7 - Arcs
8 - Secondary Action
9 - Timing
10 - Exaggeration
11 - Solid Drawing
12 - Appeal
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5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action

Animation Follow Through & Overlapping ActionFollow through is when the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, coat tails or a dress, floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). Nothing stops all at once. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while his clothes or hair continues forward. The character is going in a new direction, to be followed, a number of frames later, by his clothes in the new direction. "DRAG," in animation, for example, would be when Goofy starts to run, but his head, ears, upper body, and clothes do not keep up with his legs. In features, this type of action is done more subtly. Example: When Snow White starts to dance, her dress does not begin to move with her immediately but catches up a few frames later. Long hair and animal tail will also be handled in the same manner. Timing becomes critical to the effectiveness of drag and the overlapping action.